Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Liver cancer; Cancer - liverOverview
Hepatocellular carcinoma is cancer of the liver.
Review Date: 8/9/2009
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; and Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually seen in people ages 50 - 60.
The disease is more common in parts of Africa and Asia than in North or South America and Europe.
Hepatocellular carcinoma is not the same as
In most cases, the cause of liver cancer is usually scarring of the liver (
Patients with hepatitis B or C are at risk for liver cancer, even if they do not have cirrhosis.
Call your health care provider if you develop persistent abdominal pain, especially if you have a history of any
Aggressive surgery or a liver transplant can successfully treat small or slow-growing tumors if they are diagnosed early. However, few patients are diagnosed early.
Chemotherapy and radiation treatments are not usually effective. However, they may be used to shrink large tumors so that surgery has a greater chance of success.
Sorafenib tosylate (Nexavar), an oral medicine that blocks tumor growth, is now approved for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
Preventing and treating viral hepatitis may help reduce your risk. Childhood vaccination against hepatitis B may reduce the risk of liver cancer in the future.
Avoid drinking excessive amounts of alcohol. Certain patients may benefit from screening for hemochromatosis.
If you have chronic hepatitis or known cirrhosis, periodic screening with liver ultrasound or measurement of blood alpha fetoprotein levels may help detect this cancer early.
The usual outcome is poor, because only 10 - 20% of hepatocellular carcinomas can be removed completely using surgery.
If the cancer cannot be completely removed, the disease is usually fatal within 3 - 6 months. However, survival can vary, and occasionally people will survive much longer than 6 months.
Physical examination may show an enlarged, tender liver.
Some high-risk patients may get periodic blood tests and ultrasounds to see whether tumors are developing.